PubMed Latest Articles

This section contains a feed from PubMed with recent papers on 'ciliopathy', with hyperlinked titles.
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18 January 2022

  • Mutations in OSBPL2 cause hearing loss associated with primary cilia defects via Sonic Hedgehog signaling
    Defective primary cilia cause a range of diseases called ciliopathies, which include hearing loss (HL). Variants in human oxysterol binding protein like 2 (OSBPL2/ORP2) are responsible for autosomal dominant nonsyndromic HL (DFNA67). However, the pathogenesis of OSBPL2 deficiency has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we showed that the Osbpl2-knockout (KO) mice exhibited progressive HL and abnormal cochlea development with defective cilia. Further research revealed that OSBPL2 was...
  • Impact of Motile Ciliopathies on Human Development and Clinical Consequences in the Newborn
    Motile cilia are hairlike organelles that project outward from a tissue-restricted subset of cells to direct fluid flow. During human development motile cilia guide determination of the left-right axis in the embryo, and in the fetal and neonatal periods they have essential roles in airway clearance in the respiratory tract and regulating cerebral spinal fluid flow in the brain. Dysregulation of motile cilia is best understood through the lens of the genetic disorder primary ciliary dyskinesia...
  • Consensus nomenclature for dyneins and associated assembly factors
    Dyneins are highly complex, multicomponent, microtubule-based molecular motors. These enzymes are responsible for numerous motile behaviors in cytoplasm, mediate retrograde intraflagellar transport (IFT), and power ciliary and flagellar motility. Variants in multiple genes encoding dyneins, outer dynein arm (ODA) docking complex subunits, and cytoplasmic factors involved in axonemal dynein preassembly (DNAAFs) are associated with human ciliopathies and are of clinical interest. Therefore, clear...
  • Targeted next-generation sequencing in a large series of fetuses with severe renal diseases
    We report the screening of a large panel of genes in a series of 100 fetuses (98 families) affected with severe renal defects. Causative variants were identified in 22% of cases, greatly improving genetic counseling. The percentage of variants explaining the phenotype was different according to the type of phenotype. The highest diagnostic yield was found in cases affected with the ciliopathy-like phenotype (11/15 families and, in addition, a single heterozygous or a homozygous Class 3 variant...
  • The first case report of Strømme syndrome in a Chinese patient: Expanding the phenotype and literature review
    Strømme syndrome (MIM #243605) is a rare autosomal recessive ciliopathy resulting from compound heterozygous or homozygous pathogenic alterations in the CENPF gene (# 600236). Although there are a number of case reports featuring individuals with clinically compatible Strømme syndrome, only 13 affected individuals had molecular confirmation worldwide. Herein, we report a 24 years old Chinese gentleman with molecularly confirmed Strømme syndrome with compound heterozygous pathogenic nonsense...
  • Combinations of deletion and missense variations of the dynein-2 DYNC2LI1 subunit found in skeletal ciliopathies cause ciliary defects
    Cilia play crucial roles in sensing and transducing extracellular signals. Bidirectional protein trafficking within cilia is mediated by the intraflagellar transport (IFT) machinery containing IFT-A and IFT-B complexes, with the aid of kinesin-2 and dynein-2 motors. The dynein-2 complex drives retrograde trafficking of the IFT machinery after its transportation to the ciliary tip as an IFT cargo. Mutations in genes encoding the dynein-2-specific subunits (DYNC2H1, WDR60, WDR34, DYNC2LI1, and...
  • How CEP164 ciliopathy mutations impair ciliogenesis
    CEP164 recruits TTBK2 to the distal end of centrioles to allow primary cilium formation. In this issue of Structure, Rosa e Silva et al. (2022) present co-crystallized structures that show the molecular basis of this recruitment and define how ciliopathy mutations in CEP164 disrupt the CEP164-TTBK2 complex.
  • Novel biomarkers of ciliary extracellular vesicles interact with ciliopathy and Alzheimer's associated proteins
    Ciliary extracellular vesicles (ciEVs), released from primary cilia, contain functional proteins that play an important role in cilia structure and functions. We have recently shown that ciEVs and cytosolic extracellular vesicles (cyEVs) have unique and distinct biomarkers. While ciEV biomarkers have shown some interactions with known ciliary proteins, little is known about the interaction of ciEV proteins with proteins involved in ciliopathy and neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we reveal for...
  • Facemask Usage Among People With Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Participatory Project
    Objectives: Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare genetic disease that causes recurrent respiratory infections. People with PCD may be at high risk of severe COVID-19 and protection against SARS-CoV-2 is therefore important. We studied facemask usage and problems reported in relation with their use among people with PCD. Methods: We used data from COVID-PCD, an international observational cohort study. A questionnaire was e-mailed to participants in October 2020 that asked about facemask...
  • ATXN10 Is Required for Embryonic Heart Development and Maintenance of Epithelial Cell Phenotypes in the Adult Kidney and Pancreas
    Atxn10 is a gene known for its role in cytokinesis and is associated with spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA10), a slowly progressing cerebellar syndrome caused by an intragenic pentanucleotide repeat expansion. Atxn10 is also implicated in the ciliopathy syndromes nephronophthisis (NPHP) and Joubert syndrome (JBTS), which are caused by the disruption of cilia function leading to nephron loss, impaired renal function, and cerebellar hypoplasia. How Atxn10 disruption contributes to these disorders...
  • Electron cryo-tomography structure of axonemal doublet microtubule from Tetrahymena thermophila
    Doublet microtubules (DMTs) provide a scaffold for axoneme assembly in motile cilia. Aside from α/β tubulins, the DMT comprises a large number of non-tubulin proteins in the luminal wall of DMTs, collectively named the microtubule inner proteins (MIPs). We used cryoET to study axoneme DMT isolated from Tetrahymena We present the structures of DMT at nanometer and sub-nanometer resolution. The structures confirm that MIP RIB72A/B binds to the luminal wall of DMT by multiple DM10 domains. We found...
  • Interpreting ciliopathy-associated missense variants of uncertain significance (VUS) in Caenorhabditis elegans
    Better methods are required to interpret the pathogenicity of disease-associated variants of uncertain significance (VUS), which cannot be actioned clinically. In this study, we explore the use of an animal model (Caenorhabditis elegans) for in vivo interpretation of missense VUS alleles of TMEM67, a cilia gene associated with ciliopathies. CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing was used to generate homozygous knock-in C. elegans worm strains carrying TMEM67 patient variants engineered into the orthologous...
  • Cellular primary cilia and human diseases
    Cellular primary cilium, located on the surface of virtually all mammalian cells, is a strictly conserved organelle which regulates cell biological process and maintains cell homeostasis by modulating cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, polarity, signal cascades and other life activities. Some diseases caused by mutations in genes encoding structural proteins or accessory proteins of primary cilia are collectively termed as "ciliopathies", which can occur in embryo, infancy and even...
  • Myosin VI regulates ciliogenesis by promoting the turnover of the centrosomal/satellite protein OFD1
    The actin motor protein myosin VI is a multivalent protein with diverse functions. Here, we identified and characterised a myosin VI ubiquitous interactor, the oral-facial-digital syndrome 1 (OFD1) protein, whose mutations cause malformations of the face, oral cavity, digits and polycystic kidney disease. We found that myosin VI regulates the localisation of OFD1 at the centrioles and, as a consequence, the recruitment of the distal appendage protein Cep164. Myosin VI depletion in non-tumoural...
  • Case Report: Homozygous Pathogenic Variant P209L in the TTC21B Gene: A Rare Cause of End Stage Renal Disease and Biliary Cirrhosis Requiring Combined Liver-Kidney Transplantation. A Case Report and Literature Review
    Background: Ciliopathies are rare diseases causing renal and extrarenal manifestations. Here, we report the case of a ciliopathy induced by a homozygous pathogenic variant in the TTC21B gene. Case Description: A 47-year-old patient started hemodialysis for chronic kidney disease (CKD) of unknown origin. She presented with early onset of hypertension, pre-eclampsia, myopia and cirrhosis. Renal biopsy showed mild interstitial fibrosis, tubular atrophy, and moderate arteriosclerosis while liver...
  • Growth in Joubert syndrome: Growth curves and physical measurements with correlation to genotype and hepatorenal disease in 170 individuals
    Joubert syndrome (JS) is a genetically heterogenous disorder of nonmotile cilia with a characteristic "molar tooth sign" on axial brain imaging. Clinical features can include developmental delay, kidney failure, liver disease, and retinal dystrophy. Prospective growth and measurement data on 170 individuals with JS were collected, including parental measurements, birth measurements, and serial measures when available. Analysis of growth parameters in the context of hepatorenal disease, genotype,...
  • Interdependent Regulation of Polycystin Expression Influences Starvation-Induced Autophagy and Cell Death
    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is mainly caused by deficiency of polycystin-1 (PC1) or polycystin-2 (PC2). Altered autophagy has recently been implicated in ADPKD progression, but its exact regulation by PC1 and PC2 remains unclear. We therefore investigated cell death and survival during nutritional stress in mouse inner medullary collecting duct cells (mIMCDs), either wild-type (WT) or lacking PC1 (PC1KO) or PC2 (PC2KO), and human urine-derived proximal tubular epithelial...
  • Recent Discoveries in Epigenetic Modifications of Polycystic Kidney Disease
    Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD) is a heritable renal disease that results in end-stage kidney disease, due to the uncontrolled bilateral growth of cysts throughout the kidneys. While it is known that a mutation within a PKD-causing gene is required for the development of ADPKD, the underlying mechanism(s) causing cystogenesis and progression of the disease are not well understood. Limited therapeutic options are currently available to slow the rate of cystic growth....
  • Aurora A and AKT Kinase Signaling Associated with Primary Cilia
    Dysregulation of kinase signaling is associated with various pathological conditions, including cancer, inflammation, and autoimmunity; consequently, the kinases involved have become major therapeutic targets. While kinase signaling pathways play crucial roles in multiple cellular processes, the precise manner in which their dysregulation contributes to disease is dependent on the context; for example, the cell/tissue type or subcellular localization of the kinase or substrate. Thus,...
  • CCDC40 mutation as a cause of infertility in a Chinese family with primary ciliary dyskinesia
    CONCLUSION: We reported 2 novel mutants in CCDC40 gene (c.1259delA and EX17_20 deletion), which could be candidates for genetic diagnosis in PCD patients. The combination of targeted next generation sequencing and Sanger sequencing may be a useful tool to diagnose PCD. ICSI is a considerable method in treatment of infertility caused by PCD.
  • Comparative Natural History of Visual Function From Patients With Biallelic Variants in BBS1 and BBS10
    CONCLUSIONS: Retinal degeneration appears earlier and is more severe in BBS10 cases as compared to those with BBS1 variants. The course of change of visual function appears to relate to genetic subtypes of BBS.