PubMed Latest Articles

This section contains a feed from PubMed with recent papers on 'ciliopathy', with hyperlinked titles.
When you are on the PubMed site, you can search using any cilia and ciliopathy-related keywords or terms.

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25 September 2021

  • Imaging of the Ciliary Cholesterol Underlying the Sonic Hedgehog Signal Transduction
    Primary cilia are antenna-like structures that develop on the surface of quiescent G(0)-phase cells and receive extracellular signals including sonic hedgehog (Shh) for embryogenesis and adult tissue homeostasis. In mammalian cells, cholesterol activates the seven-transmembrane protein Smoothened to transduce the Shh signal. Germline mutations of the DHCR7 gene encoding the cholesterol biogenesis enzyme 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase cause Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome with ciliopathy-related...
  • The Drosophila orthologue of the primary ciliary dyskinesia-associated gene, DNAAF3, is required for axonemal dynein assembly
    Ciliary motility is powered by a suite of highly conserved axoneme-specific dynein motor complexes. In humans the impairment of these motors through mutation results in the disease, Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (PCD). Studies in Drosophila have helped to validate several PCD genes whose products are required for cytoplasmic pre-assembly of axonemal dynein motors. Here we report the characterisation of the Drosophila orthologue of the less known assembly factor, DNAAF3. This gene, CG17669 (Dnaaf3),...
  • Ttc30a affects tubulin modifications in a model for ciliary chondrodysplasia with polycystic kidney disease
    Skeletal ciliopathies (e.g., Jeune syndrome, short rib polydactyly syndrome, and Sensenbrenner syndrome) are frequently associated with nephronophthisis-like cystic kidney disease and other organ manifestations. Despite recent progress in genetic mapping of causative loci, a common molecular mechanism of cartilage defects and cystic kidneys has remained elusive. Targeting two ciliary chondrodysplasia loci (ift80 and ift172) by CRISPR/Cas9 mutagenesis, we established models for skeletal...
  • Case Report: Second Report of Joubert Syndrome Caused by Biallelic Variants in IFT74
    Joubert syndrome (JBTS) is a rare ciliopathy characterized by developmental delay, hypotonia, and distinctive cerebellar and brain stem malformation called the molar tooth sign (MTS). We reported a 15-month-old female with dysmorphic features (flat nasal bridge, almond-shaped eye, and a minor midline notch in the upper lips), hypotonia, polydactyly, development delay, and MTS. Whole exome sequencing revealed biallelic heterozygous mutations c.535C>G(p.Q179E/c.853G>T) (p.E285^(*)) in IFT74, which...
  • The hedgehog signaling pathway is expressed in the adult mouse hypothalamus and modulated by fasting
    The hedgehog signaling pathway is best known for its role in developmental patterning of the neural tube and limb bud. More recently, hedgehog signaling has been recognized for its roles in growth of adult tissues and maintenance of progenitor cell niches. However, the role of hedgehog signaling in fully differentiated cells like neurons in the adult brain is less clear. In mammals, coordination of hedgehog pathway activity relies on primary cilia and patients with ciliopathies such as...
  • Molecular diagnosis in a cohort of 114 patients with rare skeletal dysplasias
    Molecular diagnosis is important to provide accurate genetic counseling of skeletal dysplasias (SD). Although next-generation sequencing (NGS) techniques are currently the preferred methods for analyzing these conditions, some of the published results have not shown a detection rate as high as it would be expected. The present study aimed to assess the diagnostic yield of targeted NGS combined with Sanger sequencing (SS) for low-coverage exons of genes of interest and exome sequencing (ES) in a...
  • A Genotype-Phenotype Analysis of the Bardet-Biedl Syndrome in Puerto Rico
    CONCLUSION: Our study was the first detailed genotype-phenotype analysis of the Bardet-Biedl syndrome in Puerto Rico. Genetic mutations in BBS1 and BBS7 seem to be the most common culprits behind Bardet-Biedl syndrome in this population. Although patients diagnosed with BBS1 are likely to display milder systemic features, this was not the case with our BBS1 patients having the c.1645G>T (p.Glu549*) mutation. Further studies should focus on the c.1645G>T (p.Glu549*) mutation's impact on the BBS1...
  • Image correlation-based method to assess ciliary beat frequency in human airway organoids
    Ciliary movements within the human airway are essential for maintaining a clean lung environment. Motile cilia have a characteristic ciliary beat frequency (CBF). However, CBF measurement with current video microscopic techniques can be error-prone due to the use of the single-point Fourier transformation, which is often biased for ciliary measurements. Herein, we describe a new video microscopy technique that harnesses a metric of motion-contrast imaging and image correlation for CBF analysis....
  • Genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity in KIAA0753-related ciliopathies
    Primary ciliopathies are heterogenous disorders resulting from perturbations in primary cilia form and/or function. Primary cilia are cellular organelles which mediate key signaling pathways during development, such as the sonic hedgehog (SHH) pathway which is required for neuroepithelium and central nervous system development. Joubert syndrome is a primary ciliopathy characterized by cerebellar/brain stem malformation, hypotonia, and developmental delays. At least 35 genes are associated with...
  • Superresolution microscopy reveals photoreceptor-specific subciliary location and function of ciliopathy-associated protein, Cep290
    Mutations in the cilium-associated protein CEP290 cause retinal degeneration as part of multi-organ ciliopathies or as retina-specific diseases. The precise location and the functional roles of CEP290 within cilia and, specifically, the connecting cilia (CC) of photoreceptors, remain unclear. We used superresolution fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy (TEM) to localize CEP290 in the CC and in primary cilia of cultured cells with sub-diffraction resolution, and to determine effects of...
  • Genetic predisposition to tinnitus in the UK Biobank population
    Tinnitus, the phantom perception of noise originating from the inner ear, has been reported by 15% of the world's population, with many patients reporting major deficits to cognition and mood. However, both objective diagnostic tools and targeted therapeutic strategies have yet to be established. To better understand the underlying genes that may preclude tinnitus, we performed a genome-wide association study of the UK Biobank's 49,960 whole exome sequencing participants to identify any loci...
  • Cilia, Centrosomes and Skeletal Muscle
    Primary cilia are non-motile, cell cycle-associated organelles that can be found on most vertebrate cell types. Comprised of microtubule bundles organised into an axoneme and anchored by a mature centriole or basal body, primary cilia are dynamic signalling platforms that are intimately involved in cellular responses to their extracellular milieu. Defects in ciliogenesis or dysfunction in cilia signalling underlie a host of developmental disorders collectively referred to as ciliopathies,...
  • Loss of Ift74 Leads to Slow Photoreceptor Degeneration and Ciliogenesis Defects in Zebrafish
    Cilia are microtubule-based structures projecting from the cell surface that perform diverse biological functions. Ciliary defects can cause a wide range of genetic disorders known collectively as ciliopathies. Intraflagellar transport (IFT) proteins are essential for the assembly and maintenance of cilia by transporting proteins along the axoneme. Here, we report a lack of Ift74, a core IFT-B protein, leading to ciliogenesis defects in multiple organs during early zebrafish development. Unlike...
  • 2-IPMA Ameliorates PM2.5-Induced Inflammation by Promoting Primary Ciliogenesis in RPE Cells
    Primary cilia mediate the interactions between cells and external stresses. Thus, dysregulation of primary cilia is implicated in various ciliopathies, e.g., degeneration of the retina caused by dysregulation of the photoreceptor primary cilium. Particulate matter (PM) can cause epithelium injury and endothelial dysfunction by increasing oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. Previously, we showed that PM disrupts the formation of primary cilia in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells. In...
  • Molecular mechanisms underlying the role of the centriolar CEP164-TTBK2 complex in ciliopathies
    Cilia formation is essential for human life. One of the earliest events in the ciliogenesis program is the recruitment of tau-tubulin kinase 2 (TTBK2) by the centriole distal appendage component CEP164. Due to the lack of high-resolution structural information on this complex, it is unclear how it is affected in human ciliopathies such as nephronophthisis. Furthermore, it is poorly understood if binding to CEP164 influences TTBK2 activities. Here, we present a detailed biochemical, structural,...
  • The dynamic organelle primary cilia: emerging roles in organ fibrosis
    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Primary cilia, the antenna-like organelles on most mammalian cells, host key components of multiple morphogen signal transduction pathways. Mutations in genes responsible for primary cilia assembly and function generally result in pathological conditions known as ciliopathies, which underlie several diseases, including various forms of fibrosis. Primary cilia modulate cellular responses to extracellular cues, including TGF-β and morphogens, such as Hedgehog. Aberrant morphogen...
  • Prenatal alcohol exposure disrupts Sonic hedgehog pathway and primary cilia genes in the mouse neural tube
    Neurulation-stage alcohol exposure (NAE; embryonic day [E] 8-10) is associated with midline craniofacial and CNS defects that likely arise from disruption of morphogen pathways, such as Sonic hedgehog (Shh). Notably, midline anomalies are also a hallmark of genetic ciliopathies such as Joubert syndrome. We tested whether NAE alters Shh pathway signaling and the number and function of primary cilia, organelles critical for Shh pathway transduction. Female C57BL/6 J mice were administered two...
  • Zebrafish Models for Human Skeletal Disorders
    In 2019, the Nosology Committee of the International Skeletal Dysplasia Society provided an updated version of the Nosology and Classification of Genetic Skeletal Disorders. This is a reference list of recognized diseases in humans and their causal genes published to help clinician diagnosis and scientific research advances. Complementary to mammalian models, zebrafish has emerged as an interesting species to evaluate chemical treatments against these human skeletal disorders. Due to its...
  • Clinical feature and genetic analysis of a fetus with autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease
    CONCLUSION: The compound heterozygous c.7994T>C and c.5681G>A variants of the PKHD1 gene probably underlay the pathogenesis of ARPKD in this fetus. Above results can provide guidance for subsequent pregnancies of the couple.
  • A Novel ARL3 Gene Mutation Associated With Autosomal Dominant Retinal Degeneration
    Despite major progress in the discovery of causative genes, many individuals and families with inherited retinal degenerations (IRDs) remain without a molecular diagnosis. We applied whole exome sequencing to identify the genetic cause in a family with an autosomal dominant IRD. Eye examinations were performed and affected patients were studied with electroretinography and kinetic and chromatic static perimetry. Sequence variants were analyzed in genes (n = 271) associated with IRDs listed on...
  • Carbamazepine drug effect simulating biochemical central hypothyroidism in a patient with Bardet-Biedl syndrome
    Carbamazepine (CBZ) is a medication used commonly in epilepsy. Decreases in free T4 levels simulating central hypothyroidism have been reported, although the clinical significance is still unclear. We present a 24-year-old man with Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) who was found to have isolated biochemical central hypothyroidism. BBS is a ciliopathy occasionally associated with anterior pituitary dysfunction. While taking CBZ for epilepsy, his TSH was 1.73 mIU/L (reference range: 0.20-4.00 mIU/L)...